Category Archives: BENEFITS OF COW DUNG

Straw Paper

Straw PaperThin Straw Pulp Papers are being made in some rural areas of Myanmar as a cottage industry. Straw makes excellent paper. Straw fibers are similar to hardwood fibers and straw pulp is used to make handmade paper in a similar manner. There is plenty of straw produced globally, about 1.5 billion tons annually.

Straw papers are generally imported from China and other Asian countries. Earlier North America was considered to be the largest producer of straw fibers to make paper but currently there is no market for handmade straw paper and pulp in North America.

Making of Straw Paper

  • Cereal straw is rested in water and lime in clay pots for few days.
  • After few days, the straw is cooked and steamed under a wood fire for thirty hours.
  • The material is then rinsed and washed in cold water.
  • The fiber is then beaten with a metal tipped, wooden stamper.
  • Water is then added to pulp and a pronged wooden rod is twirled to disperse the fibers. The slurry is then poured into the screen immersed in water.
  • Distribute the slurry evenly on the screen and lift out the screen.
  • Leave the screen in sun to dry.
  • After drying, the sheets are removed from the screen.

Straw PaperTypes of Straw Paper

  • Rice Straw Paper- Rice straw makes beautiful handmade paper. Rice straw paper is translucent and absorbent finely made with smooth surface and high quality. This paper is designed for art uses.
  • Bamboo Straw Paper- Bamboo leaves, branches and clums are used to make wonderful handmade papers.
  • Wheat Straw Paper- These are beautiful non toxic handmade paper made from blended wheat straws.

Disadvantages of Using Straw Fibers to Make Handmade Paper

  • Straw fibers have high silica content that causes problems in the chemical recovery process such as scaling.
  • Straw fibers have higher water retention capacity and this pose a significant problem when separating water and pulp to make paper.
  • Straw yields less pulp per ton of raw material.
  • Straw bales takes three times space, so the transportation is expensive.

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Vermicompost Advantages

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vermicompost

we export vermicompost a natural manure made of pure cow dung.

Advantages

1) Soil food is an eco-friendly natural fertilizer prepared from bio-degradable organic matter.

2) It is improves soil aeration and texture by reducing soil compaction.

3) It improves water retention capacity of soil.

4) It promotes better root system and nutrient absorption

5) It supplies NPK as well as trace minerals like calcium, magnesium, and micro nutrients.

6) It promotes stronger stem and leaf growth which accelerates photosynthesis and further develops healthy foliage.

7) It extends Shelf life of fruits and vegetables.

8) It promotes faster germination of seeds and faster growth of plants due to healthy roots.

9) It has a capacity to detoxify chemical residues and heavy metals.

10) Minimize the need of chemical fertilizer.

Vermicast vs. Chemical Fertilizers in Soil

Criteria for Comparison Chemical Fertilizers Vermicast
Macro nutrient contents Mostly contains only one (N in urea) or at the most two (N & P in DAP) nutrients in any one type of chemical fertilizer Contains all i.e. nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) & potassium (K) in sufficient quantities
Secondary nutrient contents Not available Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) & sulphur (S) is available in required quantities
Micro nutrient contents Not available Zinc (Zn), boron (B), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo) and chlorine (Cl) also present
pH balancing Disturb soil pH to create salinity and alkalinity conditions Helps in the control of soil pH and checks the salinity and alkalinity in soil
EC correction Creates imbalance in soil EC affecting nutrients assimilation Helps in balancing the EC to improve plant nutrient adsorption
Organic carbon Not available Very high organic carbon and humus contents improves soil characteristics
Moisture retention capacity Reduces moisture retention capacity of the soil Increases moistures retention capacity of the soil
Soil Texture Damages soil texture to reduce aeration Improves soil texture for better aeration
Beneficial bacteria & fungi Reduces biological activities and thus the fertility is impaired Very high biological life improves the soil fertility and productivity on sustainable basis
Plant growth hormones Not available Sufficient quantity helps in better growth and production

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Cow Dung Paper made in Andhra

Anuradha Palla,
Reserch Scholor,
Andhra University

//
Ever since the human civilization, man start depending on the cattle for cultivation, milch, woolen etc. Among the cattle cow gained lot of importance in the history because as per the Hindu mythology It is said that 33 crores God and Goddess exists in her. So Hindus consider cow as sacred and holy. They worship cow as the incorination of God. It is a useful animal stands for the symbol of purity and innocence. It is useful in all ways to humanity. Such an innocent, useful animal is been slaughtered by the human being for their selfishness. It is said by Mahatma Gandhi:
“Cow Slaughter and manslaughter are in my opinion the two sides of same coin”
Indians revolted against the British in 1857 regarding the greased cartridges whose head to be bitten off, before loading into the newly introduced Enfield riffle, was made from beef or fat. Introduction of new cartridges hurt the religious feelings of the soldiers and this event paved the path for the India’s independence. In the other way we can say that it is because of killing the cow and the usage of its fat and beef. The idea of revolt or revolution came into the minds of Indians. In one way we can say that the cow beef is the reason for revolt or the revolution.

Killing the cow is like killing the humanity:
India has the largest number of live stock, representing about 17% of the world population. Out of the present 450 million heads of live stock, cattle represent 43.11% (i.e. 194 Million) .

Cow slaughter in India: During the British era under the governance of Clive the first Slaughter house started in India, where daily thousands of cows were slaughtered .In the Year 1910 the slaughter house numbers increased to 350. At the time of independence it increased to 36000. It is estimated that on an average nearly 1 lakh cows were been sent to Slaughter house in a day.


Cow dung and agriculture
:
Cow dung can be used as good manure a for cultivation. By using one Cow’s dung in 1 year 80 tones of vermi compost can be prepared. In general each Kg of vermin compost is available in the market at the rate of 4 to 6 rupees per kg having good demand. Gobar compost consist of nitrogen 0.5-1.5%, phosphorus 0.5-0.9%potassium 1.2-1.4%.This is equal to chemical fertilizers. Hence it is proved that cow dung compost value is not less than the chemical fertilizers. Use of chemicals fertilizers leads to soil degradation and loss of fertility of the soil. By using cow dung we can increase the fertility of soil, and can increase the production of crops. Many successful stories are there in India. The best example is Warangal district in Andhra Pradesh. Where thousands of farmers are cultivating their farms by using vermi culture. As we all know suicides of farmers were more in A.P. by using vermi culture Warangal District farmers have over come from suicides. They say that cow based compose is the best fertilizer for cultivating the crops and by using this manure they are getting good productivity.
For Example: Earlier for one acre of land total expenses were Rs. 20,000/- and used to get Rs. 25,000/- yield at the maximum side which include maximum number of risks. Later by using cow dung and urine based compost, sprinkles and by use of bulls the expenses came down to Rs. 8000/- per acre. And they are getting the same productivity. They are preparing panchagavyas, Jeevamritams, Amrutjalam, Vermiwash, etc. for better cultivation which is made by cow dung and urine.


Cow dung and Soil fertility
:
In Thretha yugh and Dwapara yugh the cultivation of crops were been done by using only cow dung based manure and the fertility of the soil was very good. As the generation passed on there was a change in the man. But the land remained the same. Ever since the urbanization has started in country man for his selfishness started involved foreign culture even in Cultivation. They launched the chemicals fertilisers companies in the country and with the Use of chemical fertilizers the fertility of the soil got reduced. In order to increase the fertility of the soil, cow dung and urine based manure should be used to increase the fertility of the soil.
Cow and its Magnanimity:
Cow is the symbol of innocence and purity it has a great sacrificing nature. It gives and gives even when it is alive and gives after death. That is why it is known for it magnanimity. No, animal or human being so useful on this earth as much as cow. God has created an organism on this earth to save and serve the human beings. But man has forgotten God and his great creation he is killing cow and it is like killing the humanity.
Cow dung can be used in preparing mosquito coils, Distemper, Bath soaps, face pack, dhoop sticks, cow dung cakes religious rituals, tooth powder, toys flowerpots, paper, tiles can be prepared.


Cow Urine
:
Cow urine is used as medicine in curing many diseases. Because it contains chemicals like Nitrogen, Sulpher, Ammonia, Copper, Iron, etc., helps in curing the diseases like blood abnormalities and toxins, natural stimulant of urinary track, activates kidneys and it is divretic motion in large intestines, cleanses blood, stabilizes bile, and stabilizes blood formation, controls built up of unwanted fats. Maintains balance and helps in production of red blood cells and hemoglobin. It is even useful in curing diseases like cancer, diabetes, blood pressure, joint pains, cough, sinus, kidney stones etc can be cured.
Some of the medicines prepared from cow urine are ark, ghanwati, eye drops, ear drops, balm etc. some of the products like phenyls, blue, hand wash, glass cleaner are also prepared by using cow urine.
Cow dung and Paper:
As the cow dung contains fiber in it paper can be made with cow dung. Paper from cow dung was made successfully in the year 2007 only and got its recognisition from International Kamdhenu Ahimsa University. But due to lack of financial support it is unable to launch an Industry. In Australia and in Thailand Paper is prepared from Kangaroo dung and elephant dung. We all know about the numbers of Kangaroo and Elephant in the universe. When compared to cow heads the numbers of elephant and kangaroo is not more than 1%. If the government or Non Governmental organisation gives adequate support, we can easily start the manufacturing of paper from cow dung. In the initial stage it will start with small scale production in make greeting cards, visiting cards, hand bags etc from cow dung. On one hand our farmers will get benefited by selling the dung and on the other side we are conserving the forests. The best thing is that this industry will not require much funding. If we get the financial support any source we will prove that it is not “GOBAR but it is GOVAR”. Every goshala should start reserch on the usage of cow dung and urine.
Cow and milk:
It is scientifically proved that cow milk is one of the best nutritious foods and it is easily digested with in two hours. It is used as ‘Ksheeram’ in temples. It can substitute a mother’s milk. It is used in panchamritam in any auspicious occasions. Sweets, Ghee, curd can be prepared by using cow milk. There is a lot of demand for ghee and cow milk in the market. But as there is scarcity of cow’s people are unable to get the cow ghee and milk.
Conclusion:
Cow is sacred. It is very useful. It can same the man kind in serving as manure to soil, mother to children’s, it saved the lives of farmers by helping them in using vermin compost. It can also solve the problem of deforestation in producing paper from cow dung. It also helps in curing the diseases of human beings and serving cow urine as medicine. What else we want? and more we expect …. It is such an important organism as this earth creator has created a kamadhenu magnanimous cow. If we stop killing the cow and start protecting the cow, our country will be developed man’s life expectancy may go up if he uses the medicines made by cow urine based and if we start consuming cow milk and curd we can get rid of few diseases. So in my view if you protect cow it is like protecting yourself. If you kill the cow it is like killing the humanity.

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Ig Nobel Prize: Vanilla flavoring from cow dung

5 Oct 2007

Vanillin — Mayu Yamamoto, a former researcher at the International Medical Center of Japan, has won this year’s Ig Nobel Chemistry Prize for developing a method for extracting vanillin — an ingredient in vanilla fragrance and flavoring — from cow dung.

According to an AFP report, Yamamoto, who attended the award ceremony at Harvard University on October 4, said, “At first I thought it was a joke, but I came to the award ceremony hoping my research would become more widely known.” Yamamoto says that widespread adoption of her method could help the environment because companies would make greater use of cow dung, which arguably contributes to global warming.

As a bonus prize, Toscanini’s Ice Cream in Cambridge, Massachusetts has invented a new flavor — Yum-A-Moto Vanilla Twist — to honor Yamamoto, and is offering a free public tasting to its customers on October 5.

The annual Ig Nobel Prizes are meant to honor scientific achievements that “first make people laugh, and then make them think,” according to the founders at science humor magazine Annals of Improbable Research.

Yamamoto is 12th Japanese person to receive an Ig Nobel Prize since the awards were established in 1991. Previous award-winning achievements from Japan include the invention of karaoke, which received the Peace Prize, and the Tamagotchi, which received the Economics Prize.

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Cow Dung Adobe Bricks- University of Malawi research

BY
D.G. Simango and A.A.B. Lyson
Malawi Journal of Science and Technology, Vol. 1 pp. 15-20

ABSTRACT
Soil stabilization is a technique that uses other materials to improve the durability of soil by increasing its strength and resistance to water.

Cowdung was used as a soil stabilizer in a soil stabilization investigation for the construction of adobe bricks.

The investigation consisted of mixing cowdung with sandy clay soil in the cowdung/soil ratio 0:1, 1:6, 1:5, 1:4, 1:3, 1:2, and 1:1.
The adobe bricks were evaluated for comprehensive strength, permeability, erosion and cracking. The results showed that the 1:4 ratio had the highest comprehensive strength and the highest resistance to erosion.

The highest resistance to water penetration after a period of three hours was shown by the cowdung/soil ratio 1:5, and there was minimum cracking in all the treatments.

Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bunda College of Agriculture, University of Malawi, P.O. Box 219, Lilongwe.

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How To: Dung into Paper

poo into paper: The making of paper starts with the collection and processing of the dung pulp. Elephant dung is typically full of short to medium grained fibrous materials from the elephants diet which when processed makes excellent paper. Panda poo has lots of undigested bamboo fibers (also a great fiber for paper-making). And cows and horses have a lot of undigested grass in their poo!

First, the naturally dried dung is collected from elephant and Giant Panda conservation parks and brought back to the paper-making factory.

Next, the dung is pre-rinsed with water, leaving only the fibrous materials from the grasses, bamboo & fruits they’ve eaten.

The fibers are placed into a giant pot of boiling water to ensure the fibers are super clean. After this thorough cleaning, the desired color can be added.

Natural fibers from banana trees & pineapples are added to the dung mixture so the paper will be thicker and stronger.

Once this is all mixed together, the moist fibers are separated into small “cakes” or “wafers” of about 300-400 grams each.

The cakes are spread evenly over a mesh-bottomed tray measuring about 60cm by 90cm.

The tray is leaned up against a tree, angled toward the sun and allowed to dry naturally for a few hours.

Once dry, the sheet of paper is peeled from the mesh tray and start making the paper products.

Courtesy of The Great Elephant Poo Poo Paper Company

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COW DUNG AND URINE BENEFITS – SUMMARY

Friday, January 30, 2009

Cattle dung is a resource. Our farmers are aware of its use as manure in agricultural fields but for want of alternate cheap cooking-fuel, they are left with no other option except to burn it in hearths. This age-old practice of burning dung cakes in the most inefficient manner should be dispensed with to conserve cattle dung for sustaining, rather improving soil health and in turn agricultural productivity. We are one of the leading countries in developing and promoting biogas technology. Still we have to travel a long way to make full use of this technology for developing our rural areas.
For better results, concerted efforts are needed in dovetailing the biogas programme with the Cattle Improvement Schemes on the one hand and with the Watershed Programme on the other. Good work done by trained masons, technicians, NGOs, etc., should be recognized by organizing healthy competitions at the block and district level and awarding the best performing persons and organisations. Plant owners, using biogas and manure efficiently should also be awarded on an annual basis. Do-it-yourself manual on the operation and maintenance of biogas plants for plant owners, construction manuals for masons, manuals on laying gas distribution pipe line and fixing burners and lamps and operation of duel-fuel engines for technicians, biogas plant users’ manual, etc. should be brought out in regional languages and widely distributed. The use of digested slurry in conjunction with chemical fertilizers should be encouraged to increase the fertilizer use efficiency. Further research data indicate that the use of biogas-slurry manure reduces the adverse affect of injudicious application of pesticides on soils. Therefore, to generate awareness among farmers, field demonstrations on the use of biogas-slurry manure should be organized. Also greater R&D efforts should be made to focus on diversified value added use of manure, e.g. for hardening of tissue cultured seedlings, abatement of soil-toxicity, as a source of micro-nutrients and root stimulant for fruit and vegetable crops, etc.
Several private dairies and gaushalas possess large number of cattle heads and many-a-time face the problem of disposal or use of cattle dung in towns and cities. To overcome this problem, the biogas technology coupled with electricity generation should be promoted with focus on production and marketing of manure.

1. Fuel – cow dung patties (gootte) for cooking
2. Fertilizer – composting makes it even more powerful
3. Heat source – cow dung is naturally hot -compost makes hotter put in glass house to heat glass house or run pipes thru it to get hot water.
3. Purifier – natural antiseptic qualities
4. Floor coating – used mixed with mud and water on floors in mud houses. Improves water absorption of mud. Prevents muddy puddles resulting from spilt water.
5. Mud brick additive – improves resistance to disintegration
6. Skin tonic – mixed with crushed neem leaves smeared on skin – good for boils and heat rash (SP used it for heat rash in Mayapur.)
7. Smoke producer – smoldering cow patties keep away mosquitoes. Can also make smoked paneer over such smoke. Tastes great in pasta! :)
Ash – from patties used in cooking. -
8. Pot cleaner – used dry absorbs oil and fat wet as a general cleaner
9. Brass polisher – tamarind removes oxidation – wet ashes polishes
10. Fertilizer – alkaline – cow dung ash is basically lime with a few other mineral mixed in
11. Mud additive – dries up slippery mud puddles
12. Mud brick additive – mud and lime (cow dung ashes) becomes like cement
13. Pond PH balancer – thrown into pond neutralizes acid.
14. Tooth polish -
15. Sun-dried organic recreational-aerodynamic-device -cow patty Frisbees ;)
16. Fan for fire – large cow patties can be used as make shift fans.
17. Deity worship – ingredient in panca gavya

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BIO-ENERGY AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT

BY  Dr. K. C. Khandelwal

Advisor and Head, Rural Energy

Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources

Government of India, New Delhi – 110 003

1. Introduction

The share of biomass resources, such as fuel wood, cattle dung and crop residues in the total energy consumption has declined significantly in the last five decades, but it is still more than 30 per cent. A point of concern is an increase in the quantity of consumption of biomass as a source of energy due to population pressure. Estimates indicate that about 300 million tonnes of fuel wood, 160 million tonnes of crop residues and 140 million tones of cattle dung are burnt every year for meeting energy requirements mainly for cooking and heating purposes. A large quantity of fuel wood is also consumed in commercial establishments, such as food processing, agro-processing, clay and metal-based industries, soap making industries, paper making industries, tobacco curing, etc., and also in the service sectors such as laundries, textile printing, etc. There is a lack of authentic data on fuel wood consumption, particularly in the industrial sector.

The present pattern is not sustainable because the estimated availability of fuel wood from recorded forests is placed in the range of 66 -123 million tonnes per year. This large gap between its supply and consumption is causing deforestation and desertification, thereby affecting agricultural production. The programme of social forestry and joint management of forests found successful in Orissa, Haryana and other States is needed in other States.

Women is the most disadvantaged population in our rural areas, facing the problem of drudgery due to daily collecting head-lot of fuel materials from long distances and burning them in traditional chulhas. Cooking with biomass causes severe indoor air pollution to which women, children below 5 years of age and senior citizens are especially susceptible. Estimates indicate 4.10 to 5.70 lakh premature deaths per year due to indoor air pollution in our country as reported recently by Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai. Further, for each death, there are about 6 person-years of illness in the population. Therefore, greater efforts are needed urgently to promote indigenously developed improved chulhas and biogas plants on a massive scale.

The present paper describes the Indian biogas programme for meeting the energy demand in the rural areas.

Biogas programme

Biogas technology involves natural processing of cattle dung for value added products,

mainly `biogas’, which is a clean and efficient fuel and ‘digested slurry’ which is enriched organic manure. Biogas can be used to replace diesel oil up to 75 per cent in a dual-fuel internal combustion engine.  Making a provision for a gas-mixing device below the air filter modifies ordinary diesel engine. The consumption of biogas is about 0.45 to 0.50 cubic metre per H.P. per hour. Dual fuel engine can be used for running water pumps, chaff cutters, etc.

India has been a pioneering country in developing a simple-to-construct and easy-to-operate design of biogas plant in the year 1953.  The model is internationally known as Indian design of floating gasholder type biogas plant, popularly called KVIC Model (Khadi and Village Industries Commission). In 90’s another model called ‘fixed dome’ was developed and is being promoted for household use. Design specifications are readily available for plant capacities suitable for individual households as well as institutions having cattle in the range of 3 to 200 heads. Details of quantity of cattle dung required for family type plants are given in Table 1.

Table1. Quantity of cattle dung needed for operating family type biogas plants.

No. of cattle Amount of             Capacity of  plant

cattle dung(kg./day) (cubic metres)

35 -  40                      350                                 15

60 -  70                      600                                 25

100 -110                    1100                                 45

140 -160                    1500                                 60

Ministry of Non-conventional Energy Sources (MNES) has been promoting household biogas plants under the Central Sector Scheme on National Project on Biogas Development since 1981-82. Large sized plants have been installed under the “ Community, Institutional and Night-soil based Biogas Plants Programme” from 1982-83 to 2002-03. The rates of central subsidy approved for the year 2002-03 are mentioned in Table 2.

Table 2. Rates of central subsidy approved for biogas plants for 2002-03.

I.                   Family type plants

Area/ Category                                                 Amount of central subsidy per plant

North Eastern Region States                                               Rs. 11,700 /-

Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh,                                Rs. 3,500 /-

Hilly areas and island States

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes,                            Rs. 2,300 /-

Desert districts, Small and marginal farmers,

Terrai region and Western Ghat

Others                                                                                Rs. 1,800 /-

II.                Institutional type plants

Capacity of plant (cubic metres of gas production per day)

Amount of Central subsidy in Rupees for institutional plants

Goshalas/ Pinjrapoles, charitable organisations/ Government institutions, co-operative societies, trusts and other institutions tied to such bodies Private and profit – making institutions and others

North Eastern  Region States

States

Other States

North

Eastern Region States

Other States
15 85000 22000 70000 15000
20 110000 22000 90000 15000
25 135000 55000 112000 35000
35 200000 55000 165000 35000
45 - 95000 - 64000
60 - 115000 - 76000
85 - 140000 - 94000

So far over 32 lakh rural households have been benefited and are meeting cooking fuel and organic manure requirements through family type biogas plants. On an average about 1.7 lakh more such plants are installed every year. A total of about 3,500 large size biogas plants have also been installed. It includes plants in use at about 2500 cattle based organisations, such as goshalas, pinjrapoles, charitable trusts, private dairies, etc. Every year about 400 more such plants are installed.

Bank financing

RBI and NABARD have issued guidelines on financing of gobar gas plants to commercial and cooperative banks from time to time since 1976. Of late, however, the construction of biogas plants with bank loans has come to a negligible level. This lack of involvement of banks should be examined and remedial measures should be taken up on a priority basis.

Functionality of plants

Functionality of biogas plants and optimum capacity utilization is a point of concern. The diagnostic study conducted by Programme Evaluation Organization, Planning Commission in 19 States in the year 2001-02 indicated that only 81 per cent plants were commissioned and 66 per cent of the commissioned plants were found in use. Therefore there is still a need to make concerted efforts in improving the quality of construction of plants and providing maintenance servicing on call. The turnkey workers scheme, which envisages a provision of providing free maintenance servicing during the first three years was found to be effective in some States only. A direct relationship between the plant owners and the turnkey workers, instead of the involvement of State nodal agency or department is needed.

Programme for 2002-03

A target of setting up of 1.70 lakh family type biogas plants and 200 institutional biogas plants have been planned for the year 2002-03 with a budget provision of Rs.60.00 crore and Rs.3.50 crore, respectively. The programme is implemented by State Nodal Departments and Agencies, KVIC and regional level non-governmental organisations (NGOs), such Sustainable Development Agency, Kanjripally and Biotech, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. These agencies have staff for providing technical and training support in the construction and maintenance of biogas plants.     Besides, Biogas Development and Training Centres (BDTC), which are functioning in eight States, are organising training for the staff of NGOs and State Governments, masons and technicians plant operators.

Bio -manure

Special emphasis is laid on the promotion of the use of digested slurry as manure. The digested slurry improves physical, chemical and biological properties of soils. Extensive field trials conducted in various agro-climatic conditions, showed that yield of different crops was enhanced by 10 to 30 per cent when biogas manure was used @ 10-15 tonnes per hectare per year in irrigated lands and @ 5-6 tonnes per hectare per year in non-irrigated lands. Biogas manure can be used for coating of seeds to improve vigor of seedlings. Highlights of recent R&D achievements, which could be adopted for improving viability of plants, are summarized below:

(a) Studies have shown that the `digested slurry’ contains 80% carbon, 1.8% nitrogen, 1.0% phosphorus, 0.9% potash, 188 ppm manganese, 355 ppm iron, 144 ppm zinc and 28 ppm Copper.  Therefore, the biogas manure is an excellent source of not only humus but also micronutrients for crops.

(b) Studies have shown that in general, about 50 to 75% of the recommended dose of inorganic N-fertilizer could be replaced by biogas manure without significantly affecting the grain yield of wheat, paddy, maize and sorghum crops.  In fact, an increase in the yield of wheat, paddy, and maize crops has been recorded at many experimental sites conducted under the aegis of Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).  Similarly 50% of the chemical N-fertiliser requirement of black gram, groundnut, and soybean crops could be met by using biogas manure.  In case of chilly, potato and brinjal crops, the replacement could be 20-50% of N-fertiliser.

A scheme for organizing demonstrations on the use of digested slurry has been taken up during 2002-03 with objectives to collect scientific data and prepare and distribute publicity materials in local languages. Agricultural Universities and non-governmental organizations will conduct demonstrations. Each year a grant of Rs. 50,000 will be given for carrying out a demonstration in an area of about two hectares.

Electricity generation

Attention has also been focused on generation of electricity in cattle based institutions, mainly gaushalas. An institutional biogas plant of 85 cubic metres capacity has been in operation since November 1997 at Idar Pinjrapole Gaushala, Gujarat, where biogas is used for generation of electricity in a 10 kVA diesel generator.  The cost of generation of electricity from the plant is reported to be Rs.3.40 per unit (kWh). A joint programme with Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) was launched in 2000 –01 and is expected to cover about 150 institutions.

A new scheme of setting up cattle dung based power generation and marketing of manure has also been initiated during 2002-03. Financial support will be given at the rate of Rs. 1.00 lakh for preparing a detailed project report for projects of 100 to 250 kW and up to Rs. 2.00 lakh for projects of more than 250 kW capacities. For setting up power plant, Central financial assistance will be given at the rate of Rs. 30,000 per kW for a 100 to 250 kW project and Rs. 75,000 plus Rs. 25,000 per kW for a project of more than 250 kW.  A detailed project report has already been prepared for setting up a power station at Sri Gopal Govardhan  Gaushala, Pathmeda, Jalore, Rajasthan, which sustains cattle population of more than 15,000 heads. About 100 tonnes of cattle dung per day will be adequate for producing 5000 cubic metres of gas to generate 9100 kWh electricity.

The estimated cost of the project is Rs. 3.00 crore.

Tenth Five Year Plan

The Tenth Five Year Plan (2002-07) envisages a comprehensive Centrally Sponsored Scheme called “National Project on Biogas Development and Manure Management”.  The plan target is to promote 10 lakh small biogas plants and establish at least 10 biogas power stations with a Plan Outlay of Rs. 350.00 crore.

Conclusions

Cattle dung is a resource. Our farmers are aware of its use as manure in agricultural fields but for want of alternate cheap cooking-fuel, they are left with no other option except to burn it in hearths. This age-old practice of burning dung cakes in the most inefficient manner should be   dispensed with to conserve cattle dung for sustaining, rather improving soil health and in turn agricultural productivity. We are one of the leading countries in developing and promoting biogas technology. Still we have to travel a long way to make full use of this technology for developing our rural areas.

For better results, concerted efforts are needed in dovetailing the biogas programme with the Cattle Improvement Schemes on the one hand and with the Watershed Programme on the other.  Good work done by trained masons, technicians, NGOs, etc., should be recognized by organizing healthy competitions at the block and district level and awarding the best performing persons and organisations. Plant owners, using biogas and manure efficiently should also be awarded on an annual basis. Do-it-yourself manual on the operation and maintenance of biogas plants for plant owners, construction manuals for masons, manuals on laying gas distribution pipe line and fixing burners and lamps and operation of duel-fuel engines for technicians, biogas plant users’ manual, etc. should be brought out in regional languages and widely distributed. The use of digested slurry in conjunction with chemical fertilizers should be encouraged to increase the fertilizer use efficiency. Further research data indicate that the use of biogas-slurry manure reduces the adverse affect of injudicious application of pesticides on soils. Therefore, to generate awareness among farmers, field demonstrations on the use of biogas-slurry manure should be organized. Also greater R&D efforts should be made to focus on diversified value added use of manure, e.g. for hardening of tissue cultured seedlings, abatement of soil-toxicity, as a source of micro-nutrients and root stimulant for fruit and vegetable crops, etc.

Several private dairies and gaushalas possess large number of cattle heads and many-a-time face the problem of disposal or use of cattle dung in towns and cities. To overcome this problem, the biogas technology coupled with electricity generation should be promoted with focus on production and marketing of manure.

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How is cow dung pure?

The cow dung is stated as purest. In one place it is stated that “Stool of animal is impure. If anyone touches, he will have to take his bath and then purify himself.” But for cow dung it is stated, “If there is any impure place, just smear over it cow dung and it will be all nice.” Now, argument is, “How is that, that one place you say that stool of animal is impure, and again one place you say cow dung is pure?” That is not contradiction. That is actually the fact. And modern scientists have analyzed cow dung, and he has found it is full of antiseptic properties. It is God’s wish. Now, take for example cow. What cow eating? Grass, dry grass. And what it is producing? It is producing the nicest thing, milk, full of vitamins. Now, if you think, “Oh, then a dry grass and straw contains all vitamins. Let me eat,” you will die. You will die. It is God’s arrangement. The cow can produce the most  vitaminous foodstuff by eating the dry grass. It is God’s desire. The cow will eat at least twenty pounds of grass, and how it can eat the grains? It is not possible. So just like elephant—it will eat hundred pounds of thing. He must eat all these branches and twigs. So everything is God’s

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purity of cow dung

The cow dung is stated as purest. In one place it is stated that “Stool of animal is impure. If anyone touches, he will have to take his bath and then purify himself.” But for cow dung it is stated, “If there is any impure place, just smear over it cow dung and it will be all nice.” Now, argument is, “How is that, that one place you say that stool of animal is impure, and again one place you say cow dung is pure?” That is not contradiction. That is actually the fact. And modern scientists have analyzed cow dung, and he has found it is full of antiseptic properties. It is God’s wish. Now, take for example cow. What cow eating? Grass, dry grass. And what it is producing? It is producing the nicest thing, milk, full of vitamins. Now, if you think, “Oh, then a dry grass and straw contains all vitamins. Let me eat,” you will die. You will die. It is God’s arrangement. The cow can produce the most vitaminous foodstuff by eating the dry grass. It is God’s desire. The cow will eat at least twenty pounds of grass, and how it can eat the grains? It is not possible. So just like elephant—it will eat hundred pounds of thing. He must eat all these branches and twigs.

(Lecture C.C. Adi lila 3.87-88 Where? Date?)

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